Email Hosting Glossary
2FATwo-factor authentication (2FA), otherwise known as two-step verification or dual- factor authentication, is a security
process that requires the user to verify their credentials with two different authentication factors (e.g. a password plus either a security token or a fingerprint).
Bayesian FilterA Bayesian filter is a program that uses Bayesian logic to evaluate the header and content of an incoming email message and determine the probability that it constitutes spam. If an email message scores too highly in Bayesian spam points, it is either delivered to a junk folder or rejected completely.
DDoS AttackA distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is when a system is attacked and overwhelmed with data from multiple machines (sometimes upwards of hundreds of thousands) distributed across the internet. The systems flood the target with superfluous requests from many different sources so legitimate requests cannot be fulfilled.
Email AddressAn email address combines a sender domain with a unique user name chosen by the email user (e.g. JaneDoe@emaildomain.com). An email address is often referred to in two parts: the “local part” (the email prefix), which is before the @ symbol; and the “domain”, which is after the @ symbol.
EOLEnd-of-life (EOL) email refers to the final stages of an email product’s existence. This means that the software will no longer be improved or actively maintained. Organisations are not advised to use EOL email products, because they pose a security risk and leave an organisation more vulnerable to hackers.
Greylisting is a method of identifying spam. A mail transfer agent using greylisting will temporarily ‘reject’ an email from a sender it does not recognise, while it collects details about the message (such as the sending server’s IP and the message envelope sender/ recipient). Legitimate emails will be resent as per their sending server’s retry rules and upon successful matching of the details collected.
IMAPInternet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is a standard that was designed to allow multiple email clients to manage the same email account by maintaining the stored email on the server, rather than downloading messages directly to any one email client. IMAP is defined by RFC 3501.
JMAPJSON Meta Application Protocol (JMAP) is a protocol for synchronising data between a client and a server. Data includes, but is not limited to, email, calendars and contacts. JMAP is optimised for mobile and web environments and its goal is to provide a consistent interface for all data types.
Joe JobJoe Job is an industry term for forged email spam. In order to hide their identity, the spammer or hacker fakes a genuine email address.
The Mail Abuse Prevention System (MAPS) provides antispam support by maintaining a Domain Name System-Based Blackhole List (DNSBL) or Real-time Blackhole List (RBL). This is essentially a list of locations on the internet reputed to send email spam.
MX RecordThe mail exchanger (MX) record allows a single domain to run multiple mail servers. It does this by specifying which mail server is responsible for accepting the recipient’s incoming message.
A mail delivery agent (MDA), also known as a message delivery agent or local delivery agent, is the agent responsible for the delivery of emails to a local recipient’s mailbox.
MTAA mail transfer agent (MTA), also known as a message transfer agent, is a type of software application that forwards inbound and/or outbound mail directly to the recipient.
A mail user agent (MUA), also known as an email reader, is a type of email client or software that uses collaborative computer environments to access and manage emails.